Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Part 2

Part 1

Part 3

3    Jagat 2(28), 7(4 to 7), 8(3,4,17 to 19), 9(7 to 10), 13(6,7,26), 14(3,4), 15(1 to 3)

3-1: 2(28)                                                                         

  Sri Krishna has talked about different facets of creation at various places in BG. Some are contextual. For example, when Arjuna does not want to fight to kill the enemies who are his relatives, Sri Krishna says in 2(28) that creation is cyclical and there is no death. At the end of one cycle, it becomes unmanifest, rests in Brahm in potential form, and is manifested in the next cycle due to the maya power of Brahm. This process continues. There is no beginning, there is no end. A jiva is a part of creation and undergoes a similar process. Death of a jiva is followed by rebirth and so on. A clear understanding of the cyclical nature of birth and death has a sobering effect on the prospect of death.

3-2: 7(4 to 7)                                                                                                                    Since ancient times, mankind has been interested in knowing God and His nature. There are two principles of God. Para-prakriti is the higher principle, and Apara-prakriti is the lower principle. They share common and uncommon features. Both are beginningless and eternal and are not created or destroyed. There are a few uncommon features. Para-prakriti is consciousness principle, Apara-prakriti is matter-principle and is inert. Consciousness is not subject to modifications whereas matter is subject to modifications. Consciousness is attribute-free, matter has attributes. Consciousness is independent and exists on its own; matter borrows existence from consciousness. Consciousness is the Absolute reality; matter has relative reality. Matter is experienced but borrows existence from consciousness. Consciousness is called Brahm.

During creation, Apara-prakriti transforms into eight things at the cosmic level. They are the five elements, namely, earth, water, fire, air, and space, and the remaining three are mind, intelligence, and egoism. The important thing is that consciousness does not undergo any modification, yet in its presence only, the creation unfolds. Thus, consciousness sustains the creation.

It is important to know the higher aspect, the consciousness, of God because though it cannot be experienced directly, sustains the creation and exists in every experience. It manifests in living things because they have subtle bodies. A stone does not manifest consciousness as it has no subtle body. It manifests the existence principle which is the same as the consciousness principle. There is nothing superior to Para-prakriti because it holds the creation like a string holding the beads of a garland. The string is in and through the garland. Likewise, Para-prakriti is in and through creation.

3-3: 8(3,4,17 to 19)                                                                                                          All deliberate activities of human beings that are responsible for future creation are called karma because according to scriptures, creation is not an accident or random. There is order in creation. It follows the laws of karma, i.e., the cause-and-effect principle. It has been asked for by the jivas and God has given it. It is subject to time and is perishable and called Adhibhuta. It is made of five elements (panchabhutas). The sun, moon, mountain, river, and physical bodies are Adhibhutas.

Verses 8(17 to 19) presents a time-chart of creation. A day and a night of Brahmaji individually lasts for one thousand four-yugas. Thus, one calendar day of Brahmaji constitutes 2000 four-yugas. During the daytime of Brahmaji, the creation is manifested and during his night-time, creation is in resolved state. It is unmanifested and rests in potential form in Brahm, the substratum. It is a cyclical process, with no beginning, no end. One would be curious to know a four-yuga in terms of a year of a man. The four yugas are, Krita, Treta, Dvapara, and Kaliyuga. 432,000 human years constitute Kaliyuga, Dvapara yuga is 2×432,000=864,000years, Treta is 3x 432,000 = 12,96,000 years and Krita is 4×432000= 17,28,0000 years. Adding up, one four-yuga is equal to 43,20,000 years. One calendar day of Brahmaji is 2000x 43,20,000= 86,40,000,000 years.

3-4: 9(7 to 10)                                                                                                                    One calendar day of Brahmaji is one cycle consisting of manifestation and dissolution. On dissolution, the creation rests in Brahm in a potential form called Prakriti. At the start of a day of Brahmaji, it is manifested as creation by the maya power of Brahm. When night comes, it is dissolved. It is a cyclical process. Nothing is created anew. There is only change of name and form. The details of creation are already coded in Brahm like a dream existing in potential form the waking state. To dispel any wrong notion, it is clarified that Brahm is not engaged in action and creation does not bind Brahm. This contains a clue for a jiva. A jiva can also engage in action without being bound by it. It is possible by mental detachment and remaining as witnessing-consciousness. Brahm does not act, but every action is possible only in Its presence. Blessed by Brahm, Prakriti unfolds as the world of the moving and the non-moving things and it revolves in the karmic cycle.

3-5: 13(6,7,26)                                                                                                                    Prakriti is unmanifest and rests in Brahm. It unfolds into a manifest world. Creation is in stages consisting of 5 subtle elements, cosmic mind, and intelligence, subtle body, 5 gross elements, 10 organs, and various permutations and combinations of 5 gross elements resulting in worldly objects. The mind borrows sentiency from Brahm so that it experiences with the help of sense organs. The job of the mind is to categorize different experiences into attachment, repulsion, happiness, and sorrow. The creation constitutes the external world and internal psychic world consisting of different kinds of emotions. The creation is interplay of consciousness and prakriti.

3-6: 14(3,4)                                                                                                                       In chapter 13, the body is said to be a field and it includes worldly objects. The field is like a womb of God and is enlivened and sustained by consciousness, the higher nature of God. Purusha (consciousness) and prakriti are like father and mother and all the products have features of both. For all species in the world, the immediate cause is the immediate mother, but the original cause is prakriti. Of course, there is only one Purusha.

3-7: 15 (1 to 3)                                                                                                              The world is compared with a huge Avastha (Peepul) tree. (1) Both are very large (2) Their beginnings cannot be traced. (3) A tree has a root. The tree is visible, root is invisible. The universe has also an invisible substratum. It is God. (4) The tree has many branches, upper, middle, and lower. The universe has 14 worlds (Lokas), upper, middle, and lower. (5) The tree is full of leaves which are important for the perpetuation and the growth of the tree. Likewise, Vedas prescribe karmas promising various results thereby perpetuating life cycle. (6) Shoots of tree represent sensory objects (7) A tree gives fruits and birds eat fruits, sweet, sour, or a mixture of two. the world gives three types of fruits: joy, sorrow, and a combination. (8) The birds make their nests on the branches of the tree. Similarly in the vast universe, some jivas are in higher lokas, e.g., swarga loka, some are in the middle loka, e.g., human loka, and some are in lower lokas e.g., patala loka. (9) The huge tree moves because of the wind. The tree-like universe along with jivas are taken here and there by the wind of prarabdha. (10) Although the tree is huge, by appropriate effort and axe it can be uprooted. Similarly, the worldly cycle of life and death can be ended by the sword of knowledge.
Contd (Part 3)