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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 25

Part 24

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala
6-2-18 Glory of knowledge 3(43), 4 (1 to 3), 7(1 to 3), 9(1,2), 14(1,2
) 3(42) describes Self as the most subtle and beyond intellect. 3(43) says that armed with the knowledge of Self and by controlling the mind with reason, enemy-like desire can be killed which is otherwise very difficult to overcome. In 4(1 to 3), Sri Krishna says that He gave this knowledge to Sun and then it passed on to Manu to Iksvaku and other royal sages, Unfortunately, with the lapse of time, it was lost and through Arjuna He is reviving it. He glorifies this knowledge. It is ultimate and supreme. On gaining this knowledge, there is nothing left to be known because by this knowledge, a person is fully satisfied, is complete, and transcends the worldly life of pairs of opposites and duality. He is free from the cycle of birth and death. It is a secret knowledge. One among thousands strives to gain it, and only a handful of seekers are successful in getting and assimilating it.

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Vedanta and Hard Problem of Consciousness


Science regards matter as the most fundamental entity and that life is also a product of matter. Life is represented by breath. There is a saying that till breath is there, there is life. Breath is one of the five Pranas (vital forces). Pranas are insentient. That life is a product of matter is accepted by Vedanta also. As regards consciousness, the prevalent scientific view is that it is an epiphenomenon, that is to say, consciousness arises in a complex organism. In other words, it is also a product of matter. This view is confronted by what is called the Hard Problem of Consciousness. Science says that consciousness and therefore firsthand experience are produced by the brain. David Chalmer differs and says that subjective experience is not an outcome of the firing of neurons in the brain. This is the hard problem of consciousness. Hard Problem of Consciousness – David Chalmers (organism.earth)

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 24

Part 23

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala
6-2-17 Jnani is the greatest devotee 7(16 to 30), 8(14,15), 12(13 to 20) 6-2-17-1: 7(16 to 20), 8(14,15
)
Sri Krishna classifies his devotees in four categories depending on their motives. They are (1) Arthi: Crisis bhakta who worships in the time of crisis for removal of the crisis. The motive is removal of crisis (dukkha-nivriti). It is natural and is inculcated from childhood. There are many examples in Indian mythology where a jiva in distress has called the God in crisis and the God has responded to the call. (2) Artharthi: He does not need a crisis for bhakthi. He worships God for making his worldly transactions successful so that he gets happiness. The motive is to gain material benefits (sukha-prapti). God is a means, not an end. He does not worship purely out of love and devotion. Once the end is accomplished, means are often given up. (3) Seeker (jignasu): One who is interested in knowing and reaching God. God is not a means but an end. His devotion is selfless. He does not worship God for Artha and Kama or punya. His devotion is of middle level. (4) Knower (jnani): He has discovered the true nature of God-both higher and lower. He knows that the God is not away from him. There is no separation between God and him. He is the highest devotee. God is neither a means nor an end. He is siddha, i.e., accomplished as ‘I’.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 23

 

Part 22

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala

6-2-15 Jnana-Phala 6(27 to 32), 13(27 to 35), 18(49,54,55)

6-2-15-1: 6(27 to 32)                                                                                                         A person who has realized Brahm and has transcended passions (born of rajas) by meditation claims the bliss of Brahm which is manifested in peace and serenity of mind. He does not forget his true nature of bliss in the face of adverse situations. He sees the non-dual Brahm in all beings. There is no duality, no fear. Differences are superficial and mithya. He cuts the veil of differences with the sword of knowledge. In his vision, God is in all beings and all beings are in God. Gold pervades all ornaments and all ornaments are in gold. A jnana-yogi is the highest devotee of God because he knows God fully, the God that is not different from him. He is not separate from God. His mind is so expanded that he does not see any difference between himself and other beings. ‘Other’ has disappeared from his vocabulary. He has the same response to others’ sorrow and joy as his own. Continue reading

Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 22

Part 21

Part 23

6 Moksha 6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala
6-2-13 Stithiprajna 2(52 to 59, 69 to 72)

6-2-13-1: 2(52 to 59) Karma yoga purifies the mind and makes it fit to pursue Jnana yoga. Knowledge is an event in mind when it is free from delusion arising due to non-discrimination between Self and non-Self. Before gaining knowledge, the mind is distracted by various goals of life mentioned in Vedas. On gaining knowledge, the mind is steadfast, unshakable, and is established in Self. There is dispassion for what has been heard or ought to be heard as they are irrelevant. Having got an opportunity to learn about one who has Self-knowledge, Arjuna asks Sri Krishna to explain the features of a Stithiprajna. He wants to know about a man of steady wisdom: how does he speak, how does he sit, how does he walk? Prajna means knowledge. Arjuna has some ideas because he describes him as established in samadhi and he wants to know more.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 21

Part 20

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala

6-2-9 Saguna and Nirguna 12(1 to 5)

Sri Krishna has talked about meditation on the Saguna God and Nirguna God. Arjuna wants to know who is better: one who meditates on Saguna or one who meditates on the Immutable and Unmanifest Nirguna. Sri Krishna does not intend to do a comparison. He says that those who constantly worship and meditate on Saguna God with Sraddha are among the best yogis. In the next verse, Sri Krishna says that a devotee of Nirguna God reaches him. He mentions some qualities of a devotee of Nirguna God. He has controlled the sense organs, he is even-minded, and is devoted to the welfare of all beings. He recognizes his very Self as omnipresent, indestructible, eternal, undefinable Brahm. Sri Krishna avoids any comparison because it serves no purpose as there is no option to do one or other. Both are to be done sequentially because it is difficult for a person who is attached to mind and body to worship unmanifest Nirguna God. It requires a mature mind. Worship of Saguna God for sufficient time is necessary for knowing Nirguna God. Sagun God is a means to Nirguna God. Nirguna God is formless and cannot be perceived by sense organs. Self is the same as Nirguna God and abiding in this knowledge is Its worship.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 20

Part 19

Part 21

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala
6-2-6 Action, inaction, non-action 4(16 to 18), 18 (13 to 15) 6-2-6-1

 4(16 to 18) Sri Krishna says that even sages are deluded about the nature of action, non-action, and inaction and offers to explain them so that upon knowing them, one is freed from the bondage of karma and samsara. An inquiry is important as people suffer from vague ideas about them. Action refers to action prescribed by scriptures. Non-action means prohibited action, i.e., not sanctioned by scriptures. Inaction is being idle. It is a cardinal mistake to think that the true nature of a person does any action and that it reaps the fruits of action.

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Maya-stuff

According to Vedanta, Brahman is the Absolute Reality. The universe is a lower order of reality drawing existence from Brahman and is mithya. Maya is the power of Brahman with two aspects, namely, projecting power and veiling power. The former projects the universe and due to the latter a jiva forgets that his essential nature is Brahman. Indeed, maya is powerful. What is it made of?
There is a clue in verses 8.18 to 8.20 of Bhagavad Gita. A day and a night of Brahmaji constitute one calendar day of Brahmaji which is made of two thousand maha-yugas. During his daytime, when Brahmaji is awake, the universe is in manifest form and when he is asleep during the night it is in unmanifest(resolved) form resting in potential form in the unmanifest Brahman. It is again manifested at the dawn of Brahmaji’s day. The universe has two states: manifest and unmanifest and the cycles of creation continue.
It follows that maya is the unmanifest universe. It is also called Prakriti. A jiva takes rebirth because of the causal body which is the sanchit karma, i.e., the karmic balance at the time of death. At the time of dissolution, i.e., at the end of a cycle of creation, the aggregate causal body of all jivas is the unmanifest universe resting in Brahman. Maya is the cosmic causal body. Brahman owes maya power to jivas.

Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 19

Part 18

Part 20

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala
6-2-5-3: 13(1 to 11)
Arjuna asks Sri Krishna to explain six terms, namely, Prakriti, Purusha, Kshetra, Kshetrajna, Jnana, and Jneyam. They can be reduced to three. Prakriti and Kshetra are the same and represent the material universe. It is a field of experience. Purusha, Kshetrajna, and Jneyam are the same and represent the consciousness principle. Sri Krishna explains that the body is Kshetra and the knower of Kshetra is Kshetrajna. The physical body is like a field because karma requires a field for performance. In this sense, the mind and external world are also fields. Their common features are that they are made of matter and inert in themselves and further that they are subject to change and decay. A knower of Kshetra is Kshetrajna. The knower is the consciousness principle. Hence Kshetrajna is the consciousness principle.

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Ananda Mimansa

Anuvaka 5 of Brahman Valli of Taittiriya Upanishad discusses two types of happiness: Anandamaya kosa and Atmananda. Interior to and subtler than the intellect sheath is Anandamaya kosa (bliss sheath) which is considered as Atma. Intellect sheath is relegated to the status of non-Atma. Bliss-sheath is subtle and assumes the shape of food-sheath (gross body). Its head is priya (joy), lefthand side is moda (hilarity), righthand side is pramoda (enjoyment), bliss is the trunk, and Brahman is the tail, the foundation. The state of deep sleep is bliss sheath. There is an experience of happiness a waking person recollects from memory.

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