Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 20

Part 19

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala
6-2-6 Action, inaction, non-action 4(16 to 18), 18 (13 to 15) 6-2-6-1

 4(16 to 18) Sri Krishna says that even sages are deluded about the nature of action, non-action, and inaction and offers to explain them so that upon knowing them, one is freed from the bondage of karma and samsara. An inquiry is important as people suffer from vague ideas about them. Action refers to action prescribed by scriptures. Non-action means prohibited action, i.e., not sanctioned by scriptures. Inaction is being idle. It is a cardinal mistake to think that the true nature of a person does any action and that it reaps the fruits of action.

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Maya-stuff

According to Vedanta, Brahman is the Absolute Reality. The universe is a lower order of reality drawing existence from Brahman and is mithya. Maya is the power of Brahman with two aspects, namely, projecting power and veiling power. The former projects the universe and due to the latter a jiva forgets that his essential nature is Brahman. Indeed, maya is powerful. What is it made of?
There is a clue in verses 8.18 to 8.20 of Bhagavad Gita. A day and a night of Brahmaji constitute one calendar day of Brahmaji which is made of two thousand maha-yugas. During his daytime, when Brahmaji is awake, the universe is in manifest form and when he is asleep during the night it is in unmanifest(resolved) form resting in potential form in the unmanifest Brahman. It is again manifested at the dawn of Brahmaji’s day. The universe has two states: manifest and unmanifest and the cycles of creation continue.
It follows that maya is the unmanifest universe. It is also called Prakriti. A jiva takes rebirth because of the causal body which is the sanchit karma, i.e., the karmic balance at the time of death. At the time of dissolution, i.e., at the end of a cycle of creation, the aggregate causal body of all jivas is the unmanifest universe resting in Brahman. Maya is the cosmic causal body. Brahman owes maya power to jivas.

Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 19

Part 18

Part 20

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala
6-2-5-3: 13(1 to 11)
Arjuna asks Sri Krishna to explain six terms, namely, Prakriti, Purusha, Kshetra, Kshetrajna, Jnana, and Jneyam. They can be reduced to three. Prakriti and Kshetra are the same and represent the material universe. It is a field of experience. Purusha, Kshetrajna, and Jneyam are the same and represent the consciousness principle. Sri Krishna explains that the body is Kshetra and the knower of Kshetra is Kshetrajna. The physical body is like a field because karma requires a field for performance. In this sense, the mind and external world are also fields. Their common features are that they are made of matter and inert in themselves and further that they are subject to change and decay. A knower of Kshetra is Kshetrajna. The knower is the consciousness principle. Hence Kshetrajna is the consciousness principle.

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Ananda Mimansa

Anuvaka 5 of Brahman Valli of Taittiriya Upanishad discusses two types of happiness: Anandamaya kosa and Atmananda. Interior to and subtler than the intellect sheath is Anandamaya kosa (bliss sheath) which is considered as Atma. Intellect sheath is relegated to the status of non-Atma. Bliss-sheath is subtle and assumes the shape of food-sheath (gross body). Its head is priya (joy), lefthand side is moda (hilarity), righthand side is pramoda (enjoyment), bliss is the trunk, and Brahman is the tail, the foundation. The state of deep sleep is bliss sheath. There is an experience of happiness a waking person recollects from memory.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt18

Part 17

Part 19

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala

6-2-3 Six definitions 8(1 to 4) The last two verses, 29 and 30 of the 7th chapter have introduced some terms without explaining them. 8th chapter begins with Arjuna’s question to know these terms, namely, Brahm, Adhyatam, Karma, Adhibhutam, Adhidaivam, and Adhiyagna. Brahm is the supreme imperishable entity. It is a pithy answer because, in the 7th chapter, Para- prakriti has been explained in detail as the imperishable entity, namely, consciousness. It pervades the creation. As such, it is within the body also. The embodied consciousness is Adhytama. Brahm is consciousness from a macro angle, Adhyatma is the same consciousness from a micro angle.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt17

Part 16

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala

6-2-1 Atma 2(17 to 25, 29,30) 3(27,42)
A human being is a mixture of inert matter and consciousness. Consciousness is very subtle. Sense organs are superior to the gross body, the mind is superior to the organs, and intellect is superior to the mind. However, consciousness is innermost and the subtlest as compared to all the objects of perception ending with the intellect and is its witness. Consciousness provides sentiency to the mind and body which are otherwise inert and incapable of any function. Self is consciousness and is the true nature of a jiva. It is the real ‘I’.

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Bhagavad Gita ( Topic-wise)Pt16

Part 15

Part 17

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-1-2 Preparatory Action

6-1-2-15 More on preparatory disciplines 2(41 to 45,60 to 68), 4(39,40), 16(21 to 24) 18(50 to 53)

6-1-2-15-1: 2 (41 to 45,60,61) A person is required to prepare himself adequately to undertake jnana yoga. Karma yoga is one such preparatory discipline. All religious practices like puja, charity, and sacrifice come under karma yoga. An essential ingredient of karma yoga is selfless action resulting in the purification of the mind. A seeker does not long for enjoyment and affluence. He has the one-point conviction that his goal is Self-knowledge. Vedas prescribe various rituals for the fulfillment of desires in this world and worlds post-death. The desires are different permutations and combinations of three qualities. If the desire is fulfilled, there is happiness. It is not permanent because the object of desire is subject to change. Worldly objects and related desires exist in pairs of opposites.

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Bhagavad Gita( Topic-wise)Pt15

Part 14

Part 16

6 Moksha 6-1 Preparation 6-1-2 Preparatory Action 6-1-2-13 Devotee of Cosmic-form 11(53 to 55), 10 (8 to 11)
6-1-2-13-1: 11(53 to 55) In chapter 11, Sri Krishna has shown His cosmic form to Arjuna for which he was temporarily given supernatural (wisdom) eyes by Sri Krishna. It means that ordinary eyes cannot appreciate the cosmic form of God. Rituals, austerities, and sacrifices themselves cannot earn the capacity to appreciate the cosmic form. Eyes of wisdom are required which can be acquired by sustained sadhana. Sri Krishna glorifies such sadhanas by belittling rituals, austerities, and sacrifices. It is a scriptural method to glorify a thing. It does not mean that belittled things are unimportant. They are important in their own rights. It is contextual. Bhakti is glorified as a sadhana of rejoicing cosmic form of God. Undivided devotion and a fervent desire to know God. Desire in a pure mind bereft of six enemies. With the sharpening of knowledge, a seeker merges with God. There is no separation between the devotee and the God. God is not a means, not an end. God is accomplished (Siddha) The removal of separation is the merger. It is a cognitive transformation with no physical change.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 14

Part 13

Part 15

6 Moksha
Preparation 6-1
Preparatory Action 6-1-2
6-1-2-11 Dharma and Harmony 3(10 to 16)

Karma yoga is proper action with the proper attitude. Sri Krishna presents another facet of karma yoga. A human being is a product and part of nature. If any harm is caused to the whole, the part is also affected. A human being should live in harmony with nature. It is included in the proper attitude of karma yoga. Creation is not an accident. It follows cosmic rules. This cosmic rule may be viewed as a sacrifice or yajna of the creator. The human beings are born of the sacrifices.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt13

Part 12

Part 14

6 Moksha
Preparation 6-1
Preparatory Action 6-1-2
6-1-2-9 Isvara-Arpan and Isvara-Prasada 9(26 to 29), 12(6 to 11), 18(57,62)
6-1-2-9-1: 9(26 to 29)
Though Sri Krishna has talked about both selfish devotion and selfless devotion, he wants to dwell more on the latter since it purifies the mind for spiritual progress. In the former, the devotee performs various rituals per scriptural injunctions for the fulfillment of varied desires. If there is a violation of injunctions, results may not fructify. It may even be counter-productive and harmful. On the other hand, selfless devotion has no rigid rules and regulations.  Continue reading