‘sarvAtmabhAva’ – 3/5

Part – 2

We shall continue with the shruti and bhAShya citations on sarvAtmabhAva in this Part of the Series. Continuing from Part – 2 :

(iv)  विद्यायाश्च कार्यं सर्वात्मभावापत्तिरित्येतत् सङ्क्षेपतो दर्शितम् । सर्वा हि इयमुपनिषत् विद्याविद्याविभागप्रदर्शनेनैवोपक्षीणा यथा एषोऽर्थः कृत्स्नस्य शास्त्रस्य तथा प्रदर्शयिष्यामः   — 1.4.10, BUB.

While the effect of Knowledge (meditation) has been briefly shown to be identity with all, the whole of this Upanishad is exclusively devoted to showing the distinction between the spheres of Knowledge and ignorance. We shall show that this is the import of the whole book.

(v)  सर्वात्मभावप्रदर्शनार्थो वा पूर्ववत्   — 1.4.15, BUB.

The passage may indicate that he is identified with all, as before (1.4.10).

(vi)  अहं मनुरभवं सूर्यश्चेति, एष सर्वात्मभावो व्याख्यातः । स एष विद्वान् ब्रह्मवित् सर्वोपाधिः सर्वात्मा सर्वो भवति ; निरुपाधिः निरुपाख्यः अनन्तरः अबाह्यः कृत्स्नः प्रज्ञानघनः अजोऽजरोऽमृतोऽभयोऽचलः नेति नेत्यस्थूलोऽनणुरित्येवंविशेषणः भवति ।   — 2.5.15, BUB.

It has been stated (1.4.10) that Vamadeva, who was a knower of brahman, realized that he had been Manu and the Sun; this identification with all is thus explained: This man of realization, this Knower of brahman, identifies himself with all as his limiting adjunct, is the self of all, and becomes all. Again, he is without any limiting adjuncts, without name, devoid of interior or exterior, entire, Pure Intelligence, birthless, undecaying, immortal, fearless, immovable, to be described as ‘Not this, not this,’ neither gross nor subtle, and so on.

(vii)  मुक्तस्य सर्वात्मभावे सति यत्र क्वचित् योगिषु देवेषु वा जक्षणादि प्राप्तम् ; तत् यथाप्राप्तमेवानूद्यते — तत् तस्यैव सर्वात्मभावादिति सर्वात्मभावमोक्षस्तुतये — 3.9.28 (7), BUB.

Since the liberated man is identified with all, therefore wherever we observe the laughing etc. in the Yogins or in the gods, the shrutis merely describe them as they are with regard to the liberated man; simply on account of his identity with all. It is but a eulogy on liberation, which is synonymous with such identity.

(viii)  एवम् अत्यन्तप्रक्षीयमाणा अविद्या उद्भूता च विद्या सर्वात्मविषया यदा, तदा स्वप्नेऽपि तद्भावभावितः — अहमेवेदं सर्वोऽस्मीति मन्यते ;  स यः सर्वात्मभावः, सोऽस्य आत्मनः परमो लोकः परम आत्मभावः स्वाभाविकः यत्तु सर्वात्मभावादर्वाक् वालाग्रमात्रमपि अन्यत्वेन दृश्यते — नाहमस्मीति, तदवस्था अविद्या ; तया अविद्यया ये प्रत्युपस्थापिताः अनात्मभावा लोकाः, ते अपरमाः स्थावरान्ताः ; तान् संव्यवहारविषयान् लोकानपेक्ष्य अयं सर्वात्मभावः समस्तोऽनन्तरोऽबाह्यः, सोऽस्य परमो लोकः तस्मात् अपकृष्यमाणायाम् अविद्ययाम् , विद्यायां काष्ठं गतायाम् , सर्वात्मभावो मोक्षः, यथा स्वयञ्ज्योतिष्ट्वं स्वप्ने प्रत्यक्षत उपलभ्यते तद्वत् , विद्याफलम् उपलभ्यत इत्यर्थः तथा अविद्यायामप्युत्कृष्यमाणायाम् , तिरोधीयमानायां विद्यायाम् , अविद्यायाः फलं प्रत्यक्षत एवोपलभ्यते — ‘अथ यत्रैनं घ्नन्तीव जिनन्तीव’ इति ते एते विद्याविद्याकार्ये, सर्वात्मभावः परिच्छिन्नात्मभावश्च ; विद्यया शुद्धया सर्वात्मा भवति ; अविद्यया असर्वो भवति ; अन्यतः कुतश्चित्प्रविभक्तो भवति ; यतः प्रविभक्तो भवति, विरुध्यते ; विरुद्धत्वात् हन्यते जीयते विच्छाद्यते च ; असर्वविषयत्वे भिन्नत्वात् एतद्भवति ; समस्तस्तु सन् कुतो भिद्यते, येन विरुध्येत ; विरोधाभावे, केन हन्यते जीयते विच्छाद्यते अत इदम् अविद्यायाः सतत्त्वमुक्तं भवति — सर्वात्मानं सन्तम् असर्वात्मत्वेन ग्राहयति, आत्मनः अन्यत् वस्त्वन्तरम् अविद्यमानं प्रत्युपस्थापयति, आत्मानम् असर्वमापादयति ; … … विद्यायाश्च कार्यं सर्वात्मभावः प्रदर्शितः अविद्याया विपर्ययेण

सा चाविद्या आत्मनः स्वाभाविको धर्मः — यस्मात् विद्यायामुत्कृष्यमाणायां स्वयमपचीयमाना सती, काष्ठां गतायां विद्यायां परिनिष्ठिते सर्वात्मभावे सर्वात्मना निवर्तते, रज्ज्वामिव सर्पज्ञानं रज्जुनिश्चये ; — 4.3.20, BUB.

[H]e thinks under the influence of these impressions in the dream state also, ‘This (universe) is myself, who am all.’ That, this identity with all, is his highest state, the Atman’s own natural, supreme state. When, prior to this realization of identity with all, he views the latter as other than himself even by a hair’s breadth, thinking, ‘This is not myself,’ that is the state of ignorance. The states divorced from the self that are brought on by ignorance, down to stationary existence, are all inferior states. Compared with these-states with which the jIva has relative dealings – the above state of identity with all, infinite and without interior or exterior, is his supreme state. Therefore, when ignorance is eliminated and Knowledge reaches its perfection, the state of identity with all, which is another name for liberation, is attained. That is to say, just as the self-effulgence of the Atman is directly perceived in the dream state, so is this result of Knowledge. … Thus the results of Knowledge and ignorance are identity with all and identity with finite things, respectively. Through pure knowledge a man is identified with all, and through ignorance he is identified with finite things, or separated from something else. He is in conflict with that from which he is separated, and because of this conflict he is killed, overpowered or pursued. All this takes place because the results of ignorance, being finite things; are separated from him. But if he is all, what is there from which he may be separated, so as to be in conflict; and in the absence of conflict by whom would he be killed, overpowered or pursued? Hence the nature of ignorance proves to be this, that it represents that which is all (infinite) as finite, presents things other than the self that are non-existent, and makes the self appear as limited…. … Thus, the nature of ignorance with its effects has been set forth; and as opposed to these, the effect of Knowledge also, viz., the attainment of identity with all, has been shown. … …

That ignorance is not the natural characteristic of the Self, since it automatically decreases as Knowledge increases, and when the latter is at its highest, with the result that the Self realizes its identity with all, ignorance vanishes altogether, like the notion of a snake in a rope when the truth about it is known.

(ix)  इदानीं योऽसौ सर्वात्मभावो मोक्षः विद्याफलं क्रियाकारकफलशून्यम् , प्रत्यक्षतो निर्दिश्यते, यत्र अविद्याकामकर्माणि सन्ति । … …  यः सर्वात्मभावःसोऽस्य परमो लोकः’ इत्युक्तः — तत् ; अतिच्छन्दा अतिच्छन्दमित्यर्थः, रूपपरत्वात् ; यदेतत् विद्याफलं सर्वात्मभावः, तदेतत् अतिच्छन्दापहतपाप्माभयं रूपम् — सर्वसंसारधर्मवर्जितम् , अतः अभयं रूपम्… |  — 4.3.21, BUB.

Now liberation in the form of identity with all, which is the result, devoid of action with its factors and results, of Knowledge, and in which there is no ignorance, desire, or work, is being directly pointed out. … That, this identity with all which has been spoken of as ‘his highest state,’ is his form beyond desires (Aticchanda). … … … This identity with all which is the result of Knowledge is this form – beyond desires, free from evils and fearless.

(x)  तथा विद्यायाश्च कार्यं प्रदर्शितम् , सर्वात्मभावः, स्वप्ने एव प्रत्यक्षतः — ‘सर्वोऽस्मीति मन्यते सोऽस्य परमो लोकः’ (बृ. उ. 4.3.20) इति ; तत्र च सर्वात्मभावः स्वभावोऽस्य, एवम् अविद्याकामकर्मादिसर्वसंसारधर्मसम्बन्धातीतं रूपमस्य, साक्षात् सुषुप्ते गृह्यते – 4.3.34, BUB.

Similarly, the effects of Knowledge too have been shown in the dream state, by a reference to one’s experience, as identity with all, in the passage, ‘When he thinks, “This (universe) is myself, who am all,” that is his highest state’ (4.3.20). It has also been stated that identity with all, which is its nature, its transcendent form, in which it is free from all such relative attributes as ignorance, desire and work, is directly experienced in the state of profound sleep.

(xi) ‘अथाकामयमानः’ (बृ. उ. 4.4.6) इत्यारभ्य सुषुप्तदृष्टान्तस्य दार्ष्टान्तिकभूतः सर्वात्मभावो मोक्ष उक्तः  — Shankara at his Intro to 4.4.7, BUB.

Beginning with, ‘But the man who does not desire (never transmigrates),  (4.4.6, Br.U.), liberation consisting in the identity with all, which is the thing that was sought to be explained by the example of the state of profound sleep, has been described.

(xii)  ब्रह्मैव लोको ब्रह्मलोकः मुख्यो निरुपचरितः सर्वात्मभावलक्षणः, हे सम्राट् ।  —  4.4.23, BUB.

This identity with the Self of all is the world of brahman, the world that is brahman, in a real, not figurative, sense, O’ Emperor, and you have attained it, this world of brahman, which is fearless, and is described as ‘Not this, not this,’ said Yajnavalkya.

6.  brahma sUtra bhAShya:

(i)  तथा ‘तद्धैतत्पश्यन्नृषिर्वामदेवः प्रतिपेदेऽहं मनुरभवं सूर्यश्च’ (बृ. उ. 1.4.10) इति ब्रह्मदर्शनसर्वात्मभावयोर्मध्ये कर्तव्यान्तरवारणायोदाहार्यम् — यथा ‘तिष्ठन्गायति’ इति तिष्ठतिगायत्योर्मध्ये तत्कर्तृकं कार्यान्तरं नास्तीति गम्यते ।  — 1.1.4, BSB.

So also, one should refer to the following text for the denial of any ‘duty’ (kartavya) between the realization of brahman and “identity with All”: While realizing this (Self) as that brahman, the Seer Vamadeva knew, ‘I was Manu and I was the Sun (1.4.10, B.U.); this is just like the sentence, “Standing there he sings,” where it can be understood that the man has no other activity in between his standing and singing.

(ii)   तथा ‘ सोऽकामयत बहु स्यां प्रजायेयेति’ (तै. उ. 2.6.1) इति प्रस्तुत्य, ‘ सच्च त्यच्चाभवत्’ (तै. उ. 2.6.1) , ‘ तदात्मानस्वयमकुरुत’ (तै. उ. 2.7.1) इति तस्यैव च सर्वात्मभावं दर्शयति । —  2.3.13, BSB.

So also, starting with, “He decided, let me become many, let me be born (2.6.1, taitti.U.), it is stated in, “He became the gross and the fine. He created Himself by Himself” (ibid), that He Himself is the Self of All (identical with All).

7.  Bhagavad-Gita bhAShya:

(i)  अस्मिन् सम्यग्दर्शने कः अधिक्रियते इति उच्यते — मद्भक्तः मयि ईश्वरे सर्वज्ञे परमगुरौ वासुदेवे समर्पितसर्वात्मभावःयत् पश्यति शृणोति स्पृशति वा ‘सर्वमेव भगवान् वासुदेवः’ इत्येवंग्रहाविष्टबुद्धिः मद्भक्तः एतत् यथोक्तं सम्यग्दर्शनं विज्ञाय, मद्भावाय मम भावः मद्भावः परमात्मभावः तस्मै मद्भावाय उपपद्यते मोक्षं गच्छति ॥ — 13.18, BGB.

He, who is devoted to Me, who regards Me – Vasudeva, the Supreme Lord, the Omniscient, the Supreme Guru – as the Self (Essence) of everything (identified with all), .i.e., he who is possessed (as it were) with the idea that all that he sees or hears or touches is nothing but the Lord, Vasudeva. Thus, devoted to Me, and having attained the right Knowledge described above, he is fit to attain to My state, i.e., he attains moksha.

(ii)  चेतसा विवेकबुद्ध्या सर्वकर्माणि दृष्टादृष्टार्थानि मयि ईश्वरे संन्यस्य ‘यत् करोषि यदश्नासि’ (भ. गी. 9.27) इति उक्तन्यायेन, मत्परः अहं वासुदेवः परो यस्य तव सः त्वं मत्परः सन् मय्यर्पितसर्वात्मभावः बुद्धियोगं समाहितबुद्धित्वं बुद्धियोगः तं बुद्धियोगम् अपाश्रित्य अपाश्रयः अनन्यशरणत्वं मच्चित्तः मय्येव चित्तं यस्य तव सः त्वं मच्चित्तः सततं सर्वदा भव ॥ — 18.57, BGB.

As taught in 9.27, do thou dedicate all thy actions to Me, regarding Me, Vasudeva, as the highest goal; his whole Self (identity with all) centered in Me, resorting to the Buddhi Yoga (samahita-buddhitva, steady mindedness, firm faith as thy sole refuge.

We shall discuss the gist from various bhAShya vAkya-s in the next part.

[Note: Translations are adopted from the works of Swami Gambhirananda (for all the Upanishads except as mentioned) and brahmasUtra-s / Swami Madhavananda (for brihadAraNyaka) / A.M. Sastri (for BG) / S. Sitarama Sastri (for aitareya).]

(To Continue … Part – 4

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