Bhagavad Gita(Topic-wise)Part 10

Part 9

Part 11

6 Moksha

6-1 Preparation

6-1-1 Preparatory Knowledge

6-1-1-8: Yog-bhrasta                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chapter 6 has discussed dhyana yoga-Vedantic meditation called nidhidhyasana- the last stage of jnana yoga- for the benefit of a sincere seeker. His goal is moksha, and he is not interested in wealth or punyas. Arjuna wants to know the fate of a seeker who is sincere but has not completed jnana yoga and is not liberated. He has not earned sufficient punyas to go to Swarga. Arjuna apprehends that such a seeker is lost like scattered clouds.

Sri Krishna assures that such a seeker does not fall in this world or thereafter as he has progressed on the path of Self-realization. Even though he has not completed jnana yoga, he goes to a higher loka and after residing there for a sufficient period is born into a religious and prosperous family. Alternatively, possessed of dispassion, he is born in a family of yogis which is otherwise difficult to get. In both cases, he starts the spiritual journey from where he has left in his previous life. In the first case, since he is born in a religious and prosperous family, he does not worry about earning his living. Though not gifted with control of sense organs he is drawn towards God by sheer force of habits in the previous life. In the second case, he is born in a family of yogis where material prosperity is not considered important. He is naturally attracted to spirituality. He soon crosses the hurdle of selfish actions. He continues his spiritual journey with renewed enthusiasm and reaches the goal.

6-1-2 Preparatory Actions

6-1-2-1 Meditation 5 (27,28,29), 6(10 to 19)

6-1-2-1-1: 5 (27,28, 29)
These verses talk about meditation and are seed verses as meditation is the main subject of chapter 6. Meditation is a spiritual sadhana. One of the impurities of the mind is that it is wandering and restless. A distracted mind is not conducive to spirituality. To control it, it is necessary to control sense organs. The eye is a powerful organ. One way to control is to fix it between the eyebrows. Next is control of inhalation and exhalation and to make breathing rhythmic and uniform, neither long nor short. Then it will be easy for the mind to eliminate external objects and associated thoughts. Cut off all relationships and associations during meditation. The object of meditation should be God residing in the heart. By practice, the mind can be made calm and focused effortlessly. This mind is fit to walk on the path of knowledge.

6-1-2-1-2: 6(10 to 19)
A wandering mind is an obstacle in the spiritual path and meditation is an antidote. Meditation is the continued fixing of the mind on an object. It requires some preparations as listed below.
Choose a secluded place, suitable time, and duration. The seat of meditation should be neither high nor low, it should be of kusa grass (lower) dear skin(middle), and cloth (upper). Sit steadily which means the meditator should have a maximum base area, and keep the body, neck, and head straight. Breathing should be rhythmic and uniform. Fix the gaze on the tip of nose and practice sensory restraint and mind restraint. The purpose of meditation is to make the mind free from distractions. When the object of meditation is a sacred symbol, such as a personal deity or cosmic form of God, it is upasana yoga. Dhyana yoga is not possible for those who eat too much or do not eat at all, who sleep too much or do not sleep. One pointed absorption is like a non-flickering flame of a lamp. It is a gradual process. A meditator should be steadfast and patient. The results of meditation trickle like drops and not like a stream. If the mind goes here and there, it should be brought back on the object of meditation.
6-1-2-2 Controlling the mind 6(33 to 36)
Equanimity of mind means that even during ups and downs, sorrow, and happiness, it is not disturbed or elated. There is sameness in attitude. As a guna-kshatriya, Arjuna is predominantly rajasic and extrovert, wandering and restless. He knows that it is difficult for a restless mind to be equanimous. It is as much difficult to control and steady the mind as it is to control wind. As wind blows in all directions, so does the mind. Arjuna seeks remedy to this problem. As a good teacher, Sri Krishna concurs with Arjuna that it is difficult to handle the mind. According to Him, mind can be controlled by practice and vairagya. By practice, one can master a difficult skill. Purpose of vairagya needs explaining. Mind collects information about sense objects through sense organs. As a repository of such information, it is busy thinking about sense objects day after day. No wonder, it is cluttered and restless. Now that the problem is diagnosed, remedy is to develop detachment towards sense objects. It is vairagya. One day or ad hoc vairagya is not helpful. Sustained practice is required. For mediation to be effective, vairagya is necessary. Vairagya does not mean physical dispossession. It is more mental and is possible if the mind understands the fleeting nature of sense objects and associated defects. 6(36) says that with control over mind, equanimity is achieved.
6-1-2-3 Virtues 13(7 to 10)
Knowledge about kshetra and kshetrajna is the true knowledge. It is Self-knowledge. Sri Krishna includes virtuous traits required to gain Self-knowledge in knowledge. They are in 13.7 to 13.10. Gaining Self-knowledge is easier with them.
13.7 Absence of pride and hypocrisy, non-violence, forgivingness, simplicity in speech, service of teacher, external and internal purity, firmness of intellect, control over mind, body, and senses.
13.8 Dispassion towards enjoyment of objects of this world and the next, absence of egotism, pondering over pain, evils inherent in birth, old age, and disease.
13.9 Absence of attachment and sense of mine for son, wife, home, etc, equipoised in favourable and unfavourable situations.
13.10 Devotion to God, living in secluded and holy place, not attracted to company of worldly people.
6-1-2-4 Daivi Sampatti 16(1 to 3)
A spiritual journey is poles apart from normal worldly life. Human values are at the core of a righteous life that makes the mind pure and fit for Vedantic teaching. In the first three verses of chapter 16, Sri Krishna enlists them. It is not exhaustive, but it gives enough indication. Sri Krishna has talked about similar virtues in 13.8 to 12.12.
Fearlessness: It is belief in oneself. To continue the chosen path in the face of obstacles. Purity of mind: Cultivation of healthy thoughts and discarding negative thoughts. Persistence in acquiring knowledge: One should not forget that the goal is spiritual knowledge. Study of scriptures is necessary. Charity: It is the sharing of wealth with others. It helps remove attachment and greed. It helps one to remain within the bounds of dharma and live in harmony with others. It makes death peaceful because death is an event in which every possession is left behind. Sacrifice: It means worship of the Lord. One is the regular ceremonial worship in the form of puja at home or puja in the temple etc. Second worship is to treat activities as worship.
Scriptural study: It is two-fold. One is a simple recitation without meaning with emphasis on words. The second type emphasizes the meanings of the scriptural words.
Arjavam. It means integrity. Uprightness, integrated personality. Thoughts, words, and actions are in harmony.
Ahimsa: Avoidance of non-violence in thought, words, and action.
Truthfulness: Avoidance of untruth. Absence of anger.
Renunciation: Mental detachment from possessions, relationship.
Control of the internal organ: Mainly sense organs.
Absence of vilification: Not speaking ill about others.
Kindness- It means compassion towards all living beings.
Modesty: To be free from pride and to not take to wrong actions.
Freedom from restlessness: The mind should be calm and quiet and not agitated. Restlessness is primarily a mental condition. When the mind is highly restless, it affects the physical body too. Gentleness: Polite behaviour
Vigour: Strength, full of energy and joy
Forgiveness: Not to take other’s misdeeds to heart.
Fortitude: To stand firm in adversity Purity: Both external and internal
Freedom from malice: Do not entertain negative thoughts about others.
Absence of haughtiness: Not to be loud-mouthed.

Contd (Part11)