Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 25

Part 24

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala
6-2-18 Glory of knowledge 3(43), 4 (1 to 3), 7(1 to 3), 9(1,2), 14(1,2
) 3(42) describes Self as the most subtle and beyond intellect. 3(43) says that armed with the knowledge of Self and by controlling the mind with reason, enemy-like desire can be killed which is otherwise very difficult to overcome. In 4(1 to 3), Sri Krishna says that He gave this knowledge to Sun and then it passed on to Manu to Iksvaku and other royal sages, Unfortunately, with the lapse of time, it was lost and through Arjuna He is reviving it. He glorifies this knowledge. It is ultimate and supreme. On gaining this knowledge, there is nothing left to be known because by this knowledge, a person is fully satisfied, is complete, and transcends the worldly life of pairs of opposites and duality. He is free from the cycle of birth and death. It is a secret knowledge. One among thousands strives to gain it, and only a handful of seekers are successful in getting and assimilating it.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 24

Part 23

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala
6-2-17 Jnani is the greatest devotee 7(16 to 30), 8(14,15), 12(13 to 20) 6-2-17-1: 7(16 to 20), 8(14,15
)
Sri Krishna classifies his devotees in four categories depending on their motives. They are (1) Arthi: Crisis bhakta who worships in the time of crisis for removal of the crisis. The motive is removal of crisis (dukkha-nivriti). It is natural and is inculcated from childhood. There are many examples in Indian mythology where a jiva in distress has called the God in crisis and the God has responded to the call. (2) Artharthi: He does not need a crisis for bhakthi. He worships God for making his worldly transactions successful so that he gets happiness. The motive is to gain material benefits (sukha-prapti). God is a means, not an end. He does not worship purely out of love and devotion. Once the end is accomplished, means are often given up. (3) Seeker (jignasu): One who is interested in knowing and reaching God. God is not a means but an end. His devotion is selfless. He does not worship God for Artha and Kama or punya. His devotion is of middle level. (4) Knower (jnani): He has discovered the true nature of God-both higher and lower. He knows that the God is not away from him. There is no separation between God and him. He is the highest devotee. God is neither a means nor an end. He is siddha, i.e., accomplished as ‘I’.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 23

 

Part 22

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala

6-2-15 Jnana-Phala 6(27 to 32), 13(27 to 35), 18(49,54,55)

6-2-15-1: 6(27 to 32)                                                                                                         A person who has realized Brahm and has transcended passions (born of rajas) by meditation claims the bliss of Brahm which is manifested in peace and serenity of mind. He does not forget his true nature of bliss in the face of adverse situations. He sees the non-dual Brahm in all beings. There is no duality, no fear. Differences are superficial and mithya. He cuts the veil of differences with the sword of knowledge. In his vision, God is in all beings and all beings are in God. Gold pervades all ornaments and all ornaments are in gold. A jnana-yogi is the highest devotee of God because he knows God fully, the God that is not different from him. He is not separate from God. His mind is so expanded that he does not see any difference between himself and other beings. ‘Other’ has disappeared from his vocabulary. He has the same response to others’ sorrow and joy as his own. Continue reading

Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 22

Part 21

Part 23

6 Moksha 6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala
6-2-13 Stithiprajna 2(52 to 59, 69 to 72)

6-2-13-1: 2(52 to 59) Karma yoga purifies the mind and makes it fit to pursue Jnana yoga. Knowledge is an event in mind when it is free from delusion arising due to non-discrimination between Self and non-Self. Before gaining knowledge, the mind is distracted by various goals of life mentioned in Vedas. On gaining knowledge, the mind is steadfast, unshakable, and is established in Self. There is dispassion for what has been heard or ought to be heard as they are irrelevant. Having got an opportunity to learn about one who has Self-knowledge, Arjuna asks Sri Krishna to explain the features of a Stithiprajna. He wants to know about a man of steady wisdom: how does he speak, how does he sit, how does he walk? Prajna means knowledge. Arjuna has some ideas because he describes him as established in samadhi and he wants to know more.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 21

Part 20

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala

6-2-9 Saguna and Nirguna 12(1 to 5)

Sri Krishna has talked about meditation on the Saguna God and Nirguna God. Arjuna wants to know who is better: one who meditates on Saguna or one who meditates on the Immutable and Unmanifest Nirguna. Sri Krishna does not intend to do a comparison. He says that those who constantly worship and meditate on Saguna God with Sraddha are among the best yogis. In the next verse, Sri Krishna says that a devotee of Nirguna God reaches him. He mentions some qualities of a devotee of Nirguna God. He has controlled the sense organs, he is even-minded, and is devoted to the welfare of all beings. He recognizes his very Self as omnipresent, indestructible, eternal, undefinable Brahm. Sri Krishna avoids any comparison because it serves no purpose as there is no option to do one or other. Both are to be done sequentially because it is difficult for a person who is attached to mind and body to worship unmanifest Nirguna God. It requires a mature mind. Worship of Saguna God for sufficient time is necessary for knowing Nirguna God. Sagun God is a means to Nirguna God. Nirguna God is formless and cannot be perceived by sense organs. Self is the same as Nirguna God and abiding in this knowledge is Its worship.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 20

Part 19

Part 21

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala
6-2-6 Action, inaction, non-action 4(16 to 18), 18 (13 to 15) 6-2-6-1

 4(16 to 18) Sri Krishna says that even sages are deluded about the nature of action, non-action, and inaction and offers to explain them so that upon knowing them, one is freed from the bondage of karma and samsara. An inquiry is important as people suffer from vague ideas about them. Action refers to action prescribed by scriptures. Non-action means prohibited action, i.e., not sanctioned by scriptures. Inaction is being idle. It is a cardinal mistake to think that the true nature of a person does any action and that it reaps the fruits of action.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt 19

Part 18

Part 20

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala
6-2-5-3: 13(1 to 11)
Arjuna asks Sri Krishna to explain six terms, namely, Prakriti, Purusha, Kshetra, Kshetrajna, Jnana, and Jneyam. They can be reduced to three. Prakriti and Kshetra are the same and represent the material universe. It is a field of experience. Purusha, Kshetrajna, and Jneyam are the same and represent the consciousness principle. Sri Krishna explains that the body is Kshetra and the knower of Kshetra is Kshetrajna. The physical body is like a field because karma requires a field for performance. In this sense, the mind and external world are also fields. Their common features are that they are made of matter and inert in themselves and further that they are subject to change and decay. A knower of Kshetra is Kshetrajna. The knower is the consciousness principle. Hence Kshetrajna is the consciousness principle.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt18

Part 17

Part 19

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala

6-2-3 Six definitions 8(1 to 4) The last two verses, 29 and 30 of the 7th chapter have introduced some terms without explaining them. 8th chapter begins with Arjuna’s question to know these terms, namely, Brahm, Adhyatam, Karma, Adhibhutam, Adhidaivam, and Adhiyagna. Brahm is the supreme imperishable entity. It is a pithy answer because, in the 7th chapter, Para- prakriti has been explained in detail as the imperishable entity, namely, consciousness. It pervades the creation. As such, it is within the body also. The embodied consciousness is Adhytama. Brahm is consciousness from a macro angle, Adhyatma is the same consciousness from a micro angle.

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Bhagavad Gita (Topic-wise) Pt17

Part 16

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-2 Jnana, Jnani, and Jnana-Phala

6-2-1 Atma 2(17 to 25, 29,30) 3(27,42)
A human being is a mixture of inert matter and consciousness. Consciousness is very subtle. Sense organs are superior to the gross body, the mind is superior to the organs, and intellect is superior to the mind. However, consciousness is innermost and the subtlest as compared to all the objects of perception ending with the intellect and is its witness. Consciousness provides sentiency to the mind and body which are otherwise inert and incapable of any function. Self is consciousness and is the true nature of a jiva. It is the real ‘I’.

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Bhagavad Gita ( Topic-wise)Pt16

Part 15

Part 17

6 Moksha
6-1 Preparation
6-1-2 Preparatory Action

6-1-2-15 More on preparatory disciplines 2(41 to 45,60 to 68), 4(39,40), 16(21 to 24) 18(50 to 53)

6-1-2-15-1: 2 (41 to 45,60,61) A person is required to prepare himself adequately to undertake jnana yoga. Karma yoga is one such preparatory discipline. All religious practices like puja, charity, and sacrifice come under karma yoga. An essential ingredient of karma yoga is selfless action resulting in the purification of the mind. A seeker does not long for enjoyment and affluence. He has the one-point conviction that his goal is Self-knowledge. Vedas prescribe various rituals for the fulfillment of desires in this world and worlds post-death. The desires are different permutations and combinations of three qualities. If the desire is fulfilled, there is happiness. It is not permanent because the object of desire is subject to change. Worldly objects and related desires exist in pairs of opposites.

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